标点符号

一、常用标点符号

二、英汉标点符号的用法


  1.句号(Full Stop or Period)
  ①用于除疑问句和感叹句以外的句子末尾,例如:
  I have never read a more interesting novel.
  ②用于某些缩略词之后,例如:Jan.(January),Sun.(Sunday),Prof. (professor),e.g. (for example),i.e. (namely)。
  ③用作小数点,例如:12.3%,$456.7。
  2.逗号(Comma)
  ①分隔并列列举成分,例如:
  There is a kitchen, a bathroom, a living room, and two bedrooms in my apartment.
  We were taught how to sit gracefully, how to walk, and how to talk politely.
  ②分隔对比或对照成分,例如:
  We must leave now, or we will miss the plane.
  I tried to sleep, but my neighbor's dog made that impossible.
  It is an imperfect system, yet it is better than none.
  ③分隔句首状语,例如:
  When Rodger came into the house, he was very surprised to see water all over the floor.
  By the end of last year, the bridge had been built successfully.
  ④分隔非限制性修饰语或同位语,例如:
  That young man bought an old car yesterday, which was sold by a famous actor.
  Smith,your old friend,came to see you.
  ⑤分隔反意疑问句或选择疑问句,例如:
  Tommy didn't take it, did he?
  Which pencil do you prefer, the red one or the blue one?
  ⑥分隔数字(每三位)、日期和地址,例如:
  1,2345,6789,000$125, 000$8,888.00
  I was born on November 13,1943.
  He lives in Mudanjiang,Heilongjiang,China.
  ⑦分隔人名与职称、头衔或倒置姓名,例如:
  George Washington, President
  Shakespeare, William =William Shakespeare
  ⑧分隔称呼语,例如:
  Sir, I'd like to ask a question.
  I would like to ask you, Mr. Jones, for your opinion.
  Will you see if the door is closed, Janet?
  ⑨常用于分隔用作插入语,独立成分或状语等的下列词语:
  a) actually, briefly, fortunately, frankly, honestly, hopefully, incidentally, luckily, naturally, personally, to tell the truth
  b) anyhow, anyway, besides, consequently, furthermore, however, likewise, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, therefore
  c) firstly, secondly, lastly, finally, first of all, after all, above all, in other words, for example, for instance, that is, namely, i.e., e.g.
  d) in short, in fact, in conclusion, in a few words, as a result, as a matter of fact, on the contrary, on the other hand
  e) of course, by the way, sure enough, between you and me, believe it or not
  f) I think, I suppose, I believe, you know, you see, in my opinion
  g) Yes, no, well, oh
  ⑩引起直接引语的说明语,例如:
  “This is my dictionary,”she said,“so you can borrow it.”
  ⑪用于书信的称呼语之后(美国用法中多用冒号)或结束语之后,例如:
   Dear Marie,
   Sincerely yours,
  ⑫代表省略的与前文相同成分,例如:
  Some went to the right; others, to the left.
  3.分号(semicolon)
  ①分隔已有逗号的并列成分,以避免产生歧义,例如:
  Follow this procedure: first, get your application forms; next, fill them out; last, pay the charge.
  ②用于由for example, for instance, namely, that is (to say), in fact, i.e., e.g.等词语引出的分句之前,例如:
  Many of their talents complemented each other; for example, he played the piano and she sang.
  Tom is well-liked; in fact, he is the most popular person in the class.
  ③用于把两个意思上有联系的句子连在一起,例如:
  He stayed in Beijing for a few years;then he went to Dalian.
  4.冒号(Colon)
  ①用于引出下文各项,例如:
  There are four seasons in a year: spring,summer,autumn, and winter.
  ②用在表示解释或说明性的词语前,例如:
  The question was: would Ford break his own record in the high jump?
  ③用在时间的小时与分钟之间(英国语法中多用句号)、比率之间和《圣经》的章与节之间,例如:
  We shall leave for Beijing at about 1:30 p.m.
  Common nouns outnumber proper nouns in proportion 3:2.
  You will find it in Genesis 2:4-7.
  ④用在信件或演说词中的称呼语后面(英国语法中多用逗号),例如:
  Dear Professor Green:
  5.问号(Question Mark)
  ①用在疑问句或语气婉转的祈使句之后,例如:
  Do you speak English?
  What's your name?
  “Are they preparing for their lessons?” the principal asked.
   Open the window, would you?
  ②用于表示存疑或没有把握的句子中,例如:
  The manuscript dates back to 600BC?
  Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet(1340?—1400)
  6.感叹号(Exclamation Mark)
  ①用于加强语气、命令或提请注意,例如:
  Be quiet!
  Hands up!
  Don't just stand! You are a fine one to talk about lazy people!
  How hard Miss Wang works!
  7.引号(Quotation Marks)
  ①用在直接引语或作品的两端,例如:
  “May I ask you a question?” He asked.
  This is the script of the play of “Romeo and Juliet”.
  ②用在引人注意的字母、词或短语等的两端,例如:
  Wang Hai dropped the letter “e” from the word “plane”.
  ③单引号用于引语中的引语(英国语法中单引号在外、双引号在内,逗号、句号多置于引号外),例如:
  “You've done very well so far,” said Joy, “but I remember that someone said, ‘Who laughs last laughs best.’”
  ④不属于引语的问号、感叹号或破折号位于引号外,例如:
  Why did she say “That is a very selfish attitude”?
  8.破折号(Dash)
  ①用在解释性的插入语之前,例如:
  Three of my favourite desserts—apple pie, strawberry ice cream, and chocolate pudding-were on the menu.
  ②用于表示话语突然中断、意思突然转折或犹豫不决,例如:
  “I'd like to,” he said,“but I'm—”(破折号在句尾时,后面不用句号)
  I was offended—no, enraged would be more accurate.
  “Well—er—it's hard to explain,” he faltered.
  ③用于引出概括性词语,例如:
  Industry, commerce, and the professions—these are the three broad heading under which business is commonly classified.
  ④用于引出被强调的词语,例如:
  In the whole world there is only one person he really admires—himself.
  ⑤用于分隔非限制性修饰语、同位语或附加说明的词语,例如:
  He was a gentleman—a gentleman of the old school.
  The premier's promise of changes—land reform, higher wages, reorganization of industry-was not easily fulfilled.
  This answer—if we can call it an answer—is completely meaningless.
  ⑥用于表示引文出处,例如:
  I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. —Winston Churchill
  ⑦用于两个地名或两个时间之间,例如:
  Tokyo—Beijing2003—2005January—September
  9.连字符(Hyphen)
  ①用于复合词中,例如:
  father-in-lawup-to-dateeditor-in-chief
  ②用于词缀之间,例如:
  co-workerself-consciousre-cover
  ③用于单词移行时。
  10.撇号(Apostrophe)
  ①在缩写词中表示字母、数字的省略,例如:
  I'm=I am
  ②与s连用表示所属格,例如:
  That is James' sister.
  The girls' clothes are in the locker.
  Anyone else's property
  11.省略号(Ellipsis)
  ①用于表示词语省略,例如:
  The book is lively...and well written.
  ②用于表示内容中的断续、停顿或犹豫,例如:
  “Tell...mother...I...died...for...my...country,” she faltered and fell into silence.
  12.圆括号(Parentheses)
  ①括出可供选择的内容,例如:
  Please indicate the lecture(s) you would like to attend.
  ②括出可省略的词语,例如:
  It seems (to me) that he is asking too much.
  13.斜线(Virgule)
  ①用于分隔可供选择的词或短语,例如:
  Please list interests/hobbies/recreations.
  The route will be New York/London/Beijing.
  ②用于互联网和电子邮件地址中各个不同的成分,例如:
  http://www.oup.co.uk/elt/
  ③用于诗歌分行,例如:
  The one I love/Is south of the great lakes./What shall I send you?
  14.方括号(square brackets)
  ①用于对原文加以修正,例如:
  He was born in 1956 [actually in 1958].
  ②用作圆括号内的括号,例如:
  (That was the color [silver] she preferred.)

三、英汉标点符号的差异


  1.句号“.”:英语中的句号是实心圆点,即“.”,常用于陈述句和祈使句之后。而汉语中的句号是空心圆圈,即“。”。
  2.冒号“:”:英语中的冒号一般只用来对主句或短语、同位语、项目表等进行说明、引申、解释等等,汉语中的冒号除有上述相似用法外,更多用于直接引语的说明及一般函件的开头语。
  3.逗号“,”:在英语中,引起直接引语的说明以及一般函件开头的称呼语等一类用语后都用逗号,而不像在汉语中那样用冒号(但美国用冒号)。例如:
  He said,“I made a mistake.”他说:“我犯了个错误。”
  4.省略号“…”:英语中的省略号是三个实心圆点,位于一行的下方。如果是位于陈述句末则还要加上一个小实心圆点。汉语中的省略号是六个实心圆点,位于一行的正中,句尾不能再加其他标点符号。例如:
  He thought,and thought,and thought....他想啊,想啊,想啊……
  5.顿号“、”:英语中没有顿号,一般用逗号取代。汉语中则用顿号表示一句话中间并列的词和词组之间的停顿。例如:
  This kind of machine is widely used in India,Russia,the U.S.A., and China.这种机器在印度、俄罗斯、美国、中国广泛应用。
  6.引号“”:引号用来表示文中的直接引语,英语中单引号和双引号都可用,汉语一般只用双引号,但引号中如再加引号是可用‘’。例如:
  ‘I heard “stop thief,stop thief”being shouted,’he said.他说“我听见有人喊‘抓贼啊,抓贼啊’”。
  7.书名号:汉语书名号为《》,表示书籍、报刊等名称。英语中不用书名号,而是用斜体字表示,以区别于印刷体;但打字或书写时,因没有斜体字,便在书名或刊名下划一横线。例如:
  I often read New York Times.我经常阅读《纽约时报》。

四、英美标点符号的差异


  一、英美标点符号在名称上的差异
  1.句号:在英国英语中,句号(.)可以被称为full stop,full point,还可以非正式地称为dot;而在美国英语中,句号一般只叫做period。
  2.引号:在英国英语中,引号(“”,‘’)有三个名称:quotation marks,quotes或inverted commas;而在美国英语中,引号只叫做quotation marks或quotes。
  3.括号:在英国英语中,圆括号(())有两个名称,一个是parentheses,另一个是brackets ;但在美国英语中,圆括号一律叫做parentheses。美国英语中的brackets专指方括号([]),而在英国英语中,方括号则被叫做square brackets。
  4.感叹号:在英国英语中,感叹号叫做exclamation mark;而在美国英语中感叹号既可以称作exclamation mark,也可以称为exclamation point。
  为了便于对比,现将这些有差别的英美标点名称列表如下:


  二.英美标点符号的用法差异
  1.时间表达中标点的使用差异:英国英语一般在“时”与“分”之间用句号(.),而美国英语则一般用冒号(:)。例如:
  英:6.30(六点半)
  美:6:30(六点半)
  2.缩略词后的标点使用差异。在缩略词后(尤其是当缩写形式包括被缩写单词的最后一个字母时)英国英语越来越倾向于不用句号。但在美国英语中多数缩略词后面还是要加句号。例如:
  英:MrDrOKegieetcUSARSVP
  美:Mr.Dr.O.K.eg.ie.etc.U.S.A.R.S.V.P.
  3.省略号的使用差异:当省略号在句末时,美国英语要用四个圆点,以表示被省略的部分正好与句子的结尾吻合;而英国英语一般用三个圆点。
  4.称呼后的标点使用差异:英国英语一般都用逗号,美国英语则在正式书信和商业书信中用冒号,在非正式的书信中才用逗号。例如:
  Dear Mr Wilson,Thank you...
  美:Dear Mr. Wilson:Thank you...
  5.最后两个列举项目之间的标点使用差异。在列举一系列项目的句子中,各项目之间都用逗号进行分隔。如果最后两个项目之间使用了连接词,在该连接词之前,英国英语一般不再用逗号,美国英语则通常都用逗号。例如:
  英:I'd like to visit Spain,Italy,Switzerland,Austria, and Yugoslavia.
  美:I invited Sara,Susan,Leon,and John to the party.
  6.单、双引号的使用差异。在引用别人的原话时,英国英语有时用单引号,有时用双引号。在需要用双重引号的时候,如果外层用了单引号,则引语之内的引语要用双引号;反之,如果外层引语使用的是双引号,则引语内的引语要用单引号。美国英语中引号的使用比较固定,一般的引语都用双引号,引语内的引语用单引号。例如:
  英:‘Good heavens,’thought Jane.‘What shall I do if he says“Hello”to me?’
  或者:“Good heavens,”thought Jane.“What shall I do if he says‘Hello’to me?”
  美:The teacher asked,“Who said,‘Give me liberty or give me death’?”
  7.引号末尾标点位置的差异。当引语的末尾有逗号或句号的时候,在英国英语中,引语本身所带的逗号或句号要放在引号内,否则,应放引号外。例如:
  She said,“You are just in time.”
  He couldn't spell“mnemonic”,and therefore failed to reach the finals.
  但是在美国英语中,无论遇到哪一种情况,逗号和句号一般都放在引号内。例如:
  He couldn't spell“mnemonic,”and therefore failed to reach the finals.
  Alexander shouted,“Wait for me.I'll be ready in two minutes.”